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HNL references of basic issues, acute kidney injury diagnostics, infectious disease diagnostics and miscellaneous.

(1) Venge P. The monitoring of inflammation by specific cellular markers. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 1994;219:47-54.

(2)   Xu SY, Petersson CG, Carlson M, Venge P. The development of an assay for human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL)- -to be used as a specific marker of neutrophil activity in vivo and vitro. J Immunol Methods 1994;171:245-52.

(3)   Xu SY, Carlson M, Engstrom A, Garcia R, Peterson CG, Venge P. Purification and characterization of a human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) from the secondary granules of human neutrophils. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1994;54:365-76.

(4)   Xu SY, Pauksen K, Venge P. Serum measurements of human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) discriminate between acute bacterial and viral infections. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1995;55(2):125-31.

(5)   Xu SY, Höglund M, Venge P. The effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on the degranulation of secondary granule proteins from human neutrophils in vivo may be indirect. Br J Haematol 1996;93(3):558-68.

(6)   Sevéus L, Amin K, Peterson CGB, Roomans GM, Venge P. Human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) is a specific granule constituent of the neutrophil granulocyte. Studies in bronchial and lung parenchymal tissue and peripheral blood cells. Histochem Cell Biol 1997;107(5):423-32.

(7)   Borowiec JW, Venge P, Henze A, Nilsson B, Stiernstrom H. Biomaterial-dependent blood activation during simulated extracorporeal circulation: a study of heparin-coated and uncoated circuits. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1997;45:295-301.

(8)   Seveus L, Amin K, Peterson CG, Roomans GM, Venge P. Human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) is a specific granule constituent of the neutrophil granulocyte. Studies in bronchial and lung parenchymal tissue and peripheral blood cells. Histochem Cell Biol 1997;107:423-32.

(9)   Ludviksdottir D, Janson C, Hogman M, Gudbjornsson B, Bjornsson E, Valtysdottir S, et al. Increased nitric oxide in expired air in patients with Sjogren’s syndrome. BHR study group. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Eur Respir J 1999 Apr;13(4):739-43.

(10)   Betsuyaku T, Nishimura M, Takeyabu K, Tanino M, Venge P, Xu S, et al. Neutrophil granule proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from subjects with subclinical emphysema. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999 Jun;159(6):1985-91.

(11)   Eichler I, Nilsson M, Rath R, Enander I, Venge P, Koller DY. Human neutrophil lipocalin, a highly specific marker for acute exacerbation in cystic fibrosis. Eur Respir J 1999 Nov;14(5):1145-9.

(12)   Torsteinsdottir I, Hakansson L, Hallgren R, Gudbjornsson B, Arvidson NG, Venge P. Serum lysozyme: a potential marker of monocyte/macrophage activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999 Dec;38(12):1249-54.

(13)   Helenius IJ, Rytila P, Metso T, Haahtela T, Venge P, Tikkanen HO. Respiratory symptoms, bronchial responsiveness, and cellular characteristics of induced sputum in elite swimmers. Allergy 1998 Apr;53(4):346-52.

(14)   Amin K, Hurst DS, Roomans GM, Venge P, Seveus L. Eosinophils and neutrophils in biopsies from the middle ear of atopic children with otitis media with effusion. Inflamm Res 1999 Dec;48(12):626-31.

(15)   Xu S, Venge P. Lipocalins as biochemical markers of disease. Biochim Biophys Acta 2000 Oct 18;1482(1-2):298-307.

(16)   Nupponen I, Venge P, Pohjavuori M, Lassus P, Andersson S. Phagocyte activation in preterm infants following premature rupture of the membranes or chorioamnionitis. Acta Paediatr 2000 Oct;89(10):1207-12.

(17)   Schmekel B, Seveus L, Xu SY, Venge P. Human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Studies of lung lavage fluid and lung tissue. Respir Med 2000 Jun;94(6):564-8.

(18)   Borowiec JW, Lahtinen M, Venge P, Henze A, Stiernstrom H. Inflammatory response during simulated extracorporeal circulation with addition of nitric oxide. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2000 Apr;41(2):207-13.

(19)   Ekberg-Jansson A, Andersson B, Bake B, Boijsen M, Enanden I, Rosengren A, et al. Neutrophil-associated activation markers in healthy smokers relates to a fall in DL(CO) and to emphysematous changes on high resolution CT. Respir Med 2001 May;95(5):363-73.

(20)   Lahtinen M, Borowiec J, Venge P, Henze P, Stiernstrom H. Nitric oxide increases leukocyte granule release during simulated extracorporeal circulation. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2000 Jun;48(3):151-6.

(21)   Edelstam G, Lowbeer C, Kral G, Gustafsson SA, Venge P. New reference values for routine blood samples and human neutrophilic lipocalin during third-trimester pregnancy. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2001;61(8):583-92.

(22)   Dahlen I, Janson C, Bjornsson E, Stalenheim G, Peterson CG, Venge P. Changes in inflammatory markers following treatment of acute exacerbations of obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir Med 2001 Nov;95(11):891-7.

(23)   Metso T, Venge P, Haahtela T, Peterson CG, Seveus L. Cell specific markers for eosinophils and neutrophils in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with respiratory conditions and healthy subjects. Thorax 2002 May;57(5):449-51.

(24)   Carlson M, Raab Y, Seveus L, Xu S, Hallgren R, Venge P. Human neutrophil lipocalin is a unique marker of neutrophil inflammation in ulcerative colitis and proctitis. Gut 2002 Apr;50(4):501-6.

(25)   Jeffery PK, Venge P, Gizycki MJ, Egerod I, Dahl R, Faurschou P. Effects of salmeterol on mucosal inflammation in asthma: a placebo- controlled study. Eur Respir J 2002 Dec;20(6):1378-85.

(26)   Mohammed AO, Elghazali G, Mohammed HB, Elbashir MI, Xu S, Berzins K, et al. Human neutrophil lipocalin: a specific marker for neutrophil activation in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Acta Trop 2003 Jul;87(2):279-85.

(27)   Lannergard A, Hersio K, Larsson A, Pauksen K, Venge P, Stahle E, et al. Evaluation of laboratory markers for the detection of infections in open-heart surgery patients. Scand J Infect Dis 2003;35(2):121-6.

(28)   Bjorkqvist M, Kallman J, Fjaertoft G, Xu S, Venge P, Schollin J. Human neutrophil lipocalin: normal levels and use as a marker for invasive infection in the newborn. Acta Paediatr 2004 Apr;93(4):534-9.

(29)   Fjaertoft G, Pauksen K, Hakansson L, Xu S, Venge P. Cell surface expression of FcgammaRI (CD64) on neutrophils and monocytes in patients with influenza A, with and without complications. Scand J Infect Dis 2005;37(11-12):882-9.

(30)   Fjaertoft G, Foucard T, Xu S, Venge P. Human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) as a diagnostic tool in children with acute infections: a study of the kinetics. Acta Paediatr 2005 Jun;94(6):661-6.

(31)   Rundstrom G, Jonsson A, Martensson O, Mendel-Hartvig I, Venge P. Lateral Flow Immunoassay Using Europium (III) Chelate Microparticles and Time-Resolved Fluorescence for Eosinophils and Neutrophils in Whole Blood. Clin Chem 2006 Dec 21.

(32)   Rundstrom G, Jonsson A, Martensson O, Mendel-Hartvig I, Venge P. Lateral Flow Immunoassay Using Europium (III) Chelate Microparticles and Time-Resolved Fluorescence for Eosinophils and Neutrophils in Whole Blood. Clin Chem 2007 Feb;53(2):342-8.

(33)   Tang LJ, De SF, Odreman F, Venge P, Piva C, Guaschino S, et al. Proteomic analysis of human cervical-vaginal fluids. J Proteome Res 2007 Jul;6(7):2874-83.

(34)   Cai L, Rubin J, Han W, Venge P, Xu S. The Origin of Multiple Molecular Forms in Urine of HNL/NGAL. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010 Sep 9.

(35)   Martensson J, Bell M, Oldner A, Xu S, Venge P, Martling CR. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in adult septic patients with and without acute kidney injury. Intensive Care Med 2010 Aug;36(8):1333-40.

(36)   Cai L, Borowiec J, Xu S, Han W, Venge P. Assays of urine levels of HNL/NGAL in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and the impact of antibody configuration on their clinical performances. Clin Chim Acta 2009 May;403(1-2):121-5.

(37)   Haase M, Devarajan P, Haase-Fielitz A, Bellomo R, Cruz DN, Wagener G, et al. The outcome of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-positive subclinical acute kidney injury a multicenter pooled analysis of prospective studies. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011 Apr 26;57(17):1752-61.

(38)   Martensson J, Xu S, Bell M, Martling CR, Venge P. Immunoassays distinguishing between HNL/NGAL released in urine from kidney epithelial cells and neutrophils. Clin Chim Acta 2012 Oct 9;413(19-20):1661-7.

(39)   Helmersson-Karlqvist J, Larsson A, Carlsson AC, Venge P, Sundstrom J, Ingelsson E, et al. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is associated with mortality in a community-based cohort of older Swedish men. Atherosclerosis 2013 Apr;227(2):408-13.

(40)   Glassford NJ, Schneider AG, Xu S, Eastwood GM, Young H, Peck L, et al. The nature and discriminatory value of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in critically ill patients at risk of acute kidney injury. Intensive Care Med 2013 Oct;39(10):1714-24.

(41)   Martensson J, Bell M, Xu S, Bottai M, Ravn B, Venge P, et al. Association of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) with sepsis and acute kidney dysfunction. Biomarkers 2013 Jun;18(4):349-56.

(42)   Bell M, Larsson A, Venge P, Bellomo R, Martensson J. Assessment of cell-cycle arrest biomarkers to predict early and delayed acute kidney injury. Dis Markers 2015;2015:158658.

(43)   Venge P, Douhan-Hakansson L, Garwicz D, Peterson C, Xu S, Pauksen K. Human Neutrophil Lipocalin as a Superior Diagnostic Means To Distinguish between Acute Bacterial and Viral Infections. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2015 Sep;22(9):1025-32.

(44)   Yu Z, Jing H, Hongtao P, Furong J, Yuting J, Xu S, et al. Distinction between bacterial and viral infections by serum measurement of human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) and the impact of antibody selection. J Immunol Methods 2016 May;432:82-6.

(45)   Venge P, Hakansson LD, Garwicz D, Peterson C, Xu S, Pauksen K. Human neutrophil lipocalin in fMLP-activated whole blood as a diagnostic means to distinguish between acute bacterial and viral infections. J Immunol Methods 2015 Sep;424:85-90.

(46)   Venge P, Eriksson AK, Douhan-Hakansson L, Pauksen K. Human Neutrophil Lipocalin in Activated Whole Blood Is a Specific and Rapid Diagnostic Biomarker of Bacterial Infections in the Respiratory Tract. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jul;24(7).

(47)   Venge P. Human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) as a biomarker of acute infections. Ups J Med Sci 2018 Mar;123(1):1-8.

(48)   Kalm-Stephens P, Malinovschi A, Janson C, Venge P, Nordvall L, Alving K. Concurrence of elevated FeNO and airway hyperresponsiveness in nonasthmatic adolescents. Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Mar;55(3):571-9.

(49)   Venge P, Xu S. Diagnosis and Monitoring of Acute Infections with Emphasis on the Novel Biomarker Human Neutrophil Lipocalin. J Appl Lab Med 2019 Jan;3(4):664-74.

(50)   Jonsson N, Gille-Johnson P, Martling CR, Xu S, Venge P, Martensson J. Performance of plasma measurement of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a biomarker of bacterial infections in the intensive care unit. J Crit Care 2019 Oct;53:264-70.

(51)   Venge P, Eriksson AK, Holmgren S, Douhan-Hakansson L, Peterson C, Xu S, et al. HNL (Human Neutrophil Lipocalin) and a multimarker approach to the distinction between bacterial and viral infections. J Immunol Methods 2019 Nov;474:112627.

(52)   Venge P, Eriksson S, Pauksen K. Blood biomarker algorithms for the diagnosis of mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory infections. J Immunol Methods 2020 Nov 7;112908.

Other references are found on PubMed. In addition to HNL you should search for the alternative names Lipocalin 2 and NGAL